Adware - (ADvertisementWARE) - Any
software application or program in which
advertising banners are displayed or Pop-up
windows appear while the program is running.
Adware is considered "spyware" and is
installed without the user's knowledge. It
typically displays targeted ads based on
words searched for on the Web or derived
from a user's surfing habits that have been
periodically sent in the background to a Web
Adserver - A Web-based server that
delivers banner ads to the requesting Web
pages. For websites that sell their own
ads, the adserver may be an in-house or
co-located machine at an Internet service
provider (ISP), or it may be owned by an
Internet advertising company.
Browser Hijacker - Any program that
changes some settings in your browser.
Browser hijackers commonly redirect your
"search" page to pass all searches to a
certain pay-per-search site, change the
default home page to the desired company
page and often transmit URLs (websites)
viewed toward the desired company server.
Cookie - A small data file created by
a Web server that is stored on your computer
either temporarily for that session only or
permanently on the hard disk (persistent
cookie). Cookies provide a way for the Web
site to identify users and keep track of
their preferences. It is also commonly used
to "maintain the state" of the session as a
user browses around on the site.
|Note: The default
settings in your Web browser
typically allow "first-party"
cookies that do not contain any
personal information, but
"third-party" cookies are created by
a Web site other than the one you
are currently visiting; for example,
by a third-party advertiser on that
site. A lot of personal data resides
in the cookie files in your
computer. As a result, this
storehouse of private information is
sometimes the object of attack.
Dialer - A type of software that
silently disconnects your modem from your
usual Internet service provider and dials
another phone number. The new number is
usually a long distance or 1-900 billable
E-mail Harvester - A person or
software that searches the Internet looking
for valid e-mail addresses. e-mail addresses
are compiled into directories that are
purchased and maintained by spammers.
Firewall - Any software program or
hardware device designed to prevent
computers on a network from communicating
directly with external computer systems by
filtering the information coming through the
Internet connection into your private
network or computer system . A Firewall
keeps hackers out and personal data in by
acting as a barrier through which all
information passing between the network or
computer and external systems must pass.
Hacker - A slang term for a person
who writes programs in an attempt to gain
unauthorized access to computer systems
Although it may refer to any programmer, it
implies very tedious "hacking away" in an
attempt to steal, disrupt or corrupt a
computer system or network.
Hoax - Usually an e-mail that gets
mailed in chain letter fashion describing
some devastating, highly unlikely type of
virus. Hoaxes are detectable as having no
file attachment, no reference to a third
party who can validate the claim.
|Note: Some "hoaxes"
instruct you to change or delete a
specific system file or setting
which can damage your system.
Keyboard logger - A computer program
or hardware device specialized to record
your keystrokes. It can record anything that
you type, including your passwords, e-mails,
credit card number. They save the recorded
keystrokes into a log file or send them to
another machine. Most keyloggers can be
detected by spyware removal software.
Pop-up - A small window that is
displayed on top of the existing windows on
screen. A popup window can be used in any
application to display new information. It
is widely used on Web pages to cause an ad
to "pop up;" however, pop-ups can be
prevented or made to appear beneath the
browser window using various pop-up
Spam - e-mail that is not
requested. Also known as "unsolicited
commercial e-mail" (UCE), "unsolicited bulk
e-mail" (UBE), "gray mail" and just plain
"junk mail,". Spam is used to advertise
products or to broadcast some political or
Spamware - Software used by spammers
to send large amounts of spam to e-mail
address lists. Spamware is also a variety of
trojan that can turn your computer into a
sender of spam or even viruses.
Spyware - Software
that sends information about your Web
surfing habits to its Web site. Spyware is
often installed without the user’s knowledge
or explicit permission in combination with a
Trojan Horse - A program that
appears legitimate, but performs some
illicit activity when it is run. It may be
used to locate password information or make
the system more vulnerable to future entry
or simply destroy programs or data on the
Virus - Software used to infect a
computer. After the virus code is written,
it is buried within an existing program.
Once that program is executed, the virus
code is activated and attaches copies of
itself to other programs in the system.
Infected programs copy the virus to other
Worm - A
destructive program that replicates itself
throughout disk and memory, using up
computer resources until it becomes
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